Daily Current Affairs 2 March 2024- Top News Of The Day

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Daily Current Affairs 2 March 2024- Top News Of The Day

1. In a ruling from 2018, the Supreme Court overturned its decision in the Asian Resurfacing case, upholding judicial discretion in stay orders.

Topic: GS2 – Polity – Judiciary 
Knowing the details of the decision that tackles a critical problem in the Indian legal system—the effect of stay orders on trial proceedings and the consequent delays in the administration of justice—makes this topic pertinent for both the Prelims and Mains exams.

– A 2018 decision was overturned by a five-judge Supreme Court Constitution Bench decision, underscoring the difficulties in granting stay orders during legal proceedings.
– The decision, which came about as a result of the Asian Resurfacing v. Central Bureau of Investigation case, represents an effort by the judiciary to address the problem of excessive trial delays brought on by temporary stay orders.

More about the news:The 2018 Case and its Implications:

  • A three-judge panel made up of Justices Adarsh Goel, Navin Sinha, and Rohinton Nariman deliberated on several cases pertaining to the Prevention of Corruption Act in the 2018 case.
  • A feature that was shared by all of these cases was the granting of stay orders at different phases of the trial by different High Courts.
  • Regardless of which party benefits from a stay order, which is meant to temporarily halt judicial proceedings to protect citizens’ rights, they frequently cause significant delays in trials.

Impact of the Ruling:

  • After the Supreme Court’s decision, lawyers invoked the Asian Resurfacing case to change the status quo, resulting in the revival of several trials that had been put on hold due to stay orders.
  • Although the High Courts had stayed the proceedings, trial courts started to issue non-bailable warrants for failure to appear, even though they may not have held hearings on the subject.

Legal Questions Raised:

  • A three-judge bench led by Chief Justice of India (CJI) DY Chandrachud framed significant legal questions in response to the ruling concerning the extent of the Supreme Court’s jurisdiction under Article 142 of the Constitution.
  • These queries focused on the Court’s authority to order High Courts to resolve pending cases within set deadlines and to automatically revoke all interim stay orders after a predetermined amount of time.

Rationale for Overturning the 2018 Ruling:

  • In a recent decision, the five-judge Bench stressed that constitutional courts should avoid setting strict deadlines for case decisions.
  • It was argued that because different courts have different patterns of pending cases, it is essential that the courts in question prioritise cases according to their unique set of circumstances.
  • The Bench ruled that the Asian Resurfacing case’s automatic vacation of stay orders after six months would violate the principles of justice by voiding interim orders without giving all parties involved adequate consideration.

Legal Arguments and Judicial Opinion:

  • Senior Advocate Rakesh Dwivedi argued against automatic vacation of stay orders during the hearing, emphasising the significance of judicial discretion in these cases.
  • The central government’s lawyer general, Tushar Mehta, argued that the legislature, not the courts, should be in charge of determining the deadlines for legal proceedings.


  • The significance of judicial discretion and case-by-case analysis in resolving issues pertaining to stay orders and trial proceedings is highlighted by the recent ruling of the Supreme Court.
  • The Court has reaffirmed its commitment to upholding due process and fairness principles in legal proceedings by overturning the 2018 decision. This ensures that justice is not compromised by arbitrary timelines or blanket rulings.

About Article 226(3):
– In a separate opinion, Justice Manoj Misra referred to Article 226(3) of the Constitution, which gives High Courts a two-week window in which to consider a request to vacation an interim order.
– The interim order will be revoked, according to Article 226(3), if the application is not resolved within those two weeks.
– It is noted that, provided an application is initially filed, this effectively offers a procedure for immediately lifting a stay order.

Practice Question: Examine the Supreme Court’s recent decision, which reversed the 2018 ruling in the Asian Resurfacing case and affected the length and validity of stay orders in court cases, critically. Talk about how the decision will affect India’s legal system’s administration of justice, fairness, and judicial effectiveness. (15 m/250 words)

2. In Q3 2023–24, India’s GDP increased to a six-quarter high of 8.4%; however, there are concerns about the divergence between sectoral performance and GVA growth rates.

Topic: GS3 – Indian Economy – Inclusive growth.
Given the current GDP figures, revisions, and sectoral performance, this topic is pertinent to both the Prelims and Mains exams.

– In the third quarter of 2023–24 (October–December), India’s GDP growth rate jumped to a six-quarter high of 8.4%, as per data released by the National Statistical Office (NSO).
– The GDP estimate for the entire year was revised up from the previous estimate of 7.3% to 7.6% as a result of this growth exceeding expectations.

More about the news:Sectoral Analysis: Mixed Performance Across Sectors:

  • Improvements in manufacturing, mining, construction, trade, hotels, transportation, communication, and broadcasting services contributed to the GDP growth in the third quarter.
  • A mixed picture of the economy’s performance across sectors is presented by the agriculture sector’s contraction during this time.

Divergence Between GDP and GVA Growth Rates:

  • The growth rates of Gross Value Added (GVA) and GDP were significantly different; GVA growth was 6.5%, 190 basis points less than GDP growth.
  • Economists are concerned about this divergence; some believe that the GDP may have been overstated as a result of unusually low GDP deflator values.

Key Reasons Behind the Surge in GDP:

  • Strong performances in industries like manufacturing and construction were the main causes of the third quarter’s sharp increase in GDP growth.
  • But there was a downturn in agriculture, which made general economic growth difficult.

Revisions in GDP Growth Rates:

  • The growth rate for the third quarter was revised from the growth rates of the prior financial years due to favourable base effects.
  • The current fiscal year’s quarterly growth rates were also adjusted to account for evolving economic conditions.

Divergence Between GDP and GVA: Causes and Implications:

  • There are a number of reasons why the growth rates of GDP and GVA differ, including an increase in net taxes and a decrease in subsidies.
  • The assessment of the actual level of economic growth and the volatility of GDP prints will be significantly impacted by this disparity.

Growth Expectations and Concerns Going Forward:

  • In the future, questions about whether GDP growth can be sustained still exist, especially in light of rising consumer spending and private investment.
  • GDP growth has been supported by investment growth, but private consumption growth has been muted.
  • Future growth prospects may also be impacted by variables like rising input costs and a slowdown in profit growth.


  • Although the GDP growth of India in the third quarter of 2023–2024 exceeded forecasts, questions remain about the growth’s sustainability and inclusivity.
  • Maintaining economic momentum in the upcoming quarters will require addressing issues in industries like agriculture and making sure that private investments and consumption improve broadly.

About National Statistical Office (NSO)
– The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) and the Central Statistics Office (CSO) were combined by the Central Government in May 2019 and are now part of the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI).
– The National Statistical Office, an umbrella organisation, was established by the merger.
– As a result, the MoSPI’s statistical division is now known as the NSO.
– The NSO serves as the country’s nodal organisation for the planned development of the statistical system.
– It sets and maintains conventions and guidelines in the field of statistics, covering terms and definitions, data collection methods, data processing, and results distribution.

Practice Question: Talk about the latest developments in the GDP growth rate of India. Evaluate the opportunities and challenges posed by the current economic situation and make recommendations for policies that will support inclusive and sustainable economic growth in India. (15 m/250 words)

3. Nine are injured when a suspected IED blast rocks Bengaluru’s Rameshwaram Cafe.

Topic: Important topic for Prelims

– Nine people were injured in an explosion at the Rameshwaram Cafe in Bengaluru’s Whitefield neighbourhood, the majority of whom were lunch patrons. Suspicion grew when CCTV footage showed a man placing a bag in the cafe with part of his face hidden.
– According to Chief Minister Siddaramaiah, an improvised explosive device (IED) was the cause of the explosion.
– Under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) and the Explosives Substances Act, the state police filed a case, and the National Investigation Agency (NIA) is supporting the inquiry. The suspect has been identified and seven teams have been assembled to capture him.

More about the news:Understanding Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs):

  • Improvised explosive devices, or IEDs, are basically homemade bombs that come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
  • These gadgets can be anything from little pipe bombs to highly developed explosives that are able to do a lot of harm.
  • During the 2003 US invasion of Iraq, the term “IED” rose to prominence.

Components and Composition of IEDs:

  • An initiator, also known as a triggering mechanism, a switch to arm the explosive, the main charge for the explosion, a power source, and a container are the typical parts of an IED.
  • In addition, they might have additions like glass, metal, or nails to increase the explosion’s damage.

Materials and Construction of IEDs:

  • Gunpowder, hydrogen peroxide, and fertilisers like ammonium and urea nitrate are frequently used in the construction of IEDs.
  • Due to security concerns arising from the materials’ easy accessibility, it is not permitted to bring large amounts of liquids on board aeroplanes.

Purpose and Impact of IEDs:

  • Beyond causing casualties, IEDs are frequently used as distractions in areas of active conflict.
  • An IED’s ability to cause damage varies depending on its size, design, location, and kind of explosive.
  • Smaller bombs are typically less potent than larger ones, despite being simpler to conceal and use.

Notable Instances of IED Attacks in India:

  • India has seen a number of notable IED attacks, such as the Bodh Gaya bombings in 2013, the 2008 Jaipur explosions, and the Mumbai serial blasts in 1993.
  • Maoist insurgents and militants in Kashmir have regularly used these devices, underscoring the ongoing security risks presented by these homemade explosives.

4. Jointly Launching Development Projects on Agaléga Island, India and Mauritius Show Their Commitment to Regional Security and Bilateral Cooperation

Topic: GS2 – International Relations- Bilateral Relations 
Understanding India’s connection with Mauritius and its involvement in regional development projects, like those on Agaléga Island, makes this topic relevant for both the Prelims and Mains exams.

– The Agaléga Islands, which are part of Mauritius, have long been underdeveloped. Because of their isolation and dearth of essential services, the local population faces difficulties.
– The Mauritian government realised how vulnerable these islands were, so they decided to develop them to improve socioeconomic conditions and address issues related to national security.
– Because of the strong historical, social, and cultural links between the two countries, they looked to India as a strategic ally in the pursuit of this objective.

More about the news:Reasons for Choosing India:

  • The decision to include India in the development of Agaléga was influenced by the trust and friendship that characterise the strong bilateral relations between Mauritius and India.
  • India was selected as the preferred development partner after careful consideration of issues pertaining to security and sovereignty.
  • This decision is a reflection of the two nations’ shared trust and dedication to cooperation.

Expected Benefits for Mauritius:

  • Significant advantages for Mauritius will result from the development of Agaléga, including better infrastructure and connectivity, the creation of jobs, and an improvement in the standard of living for the local populace.
  • The construction of a jetty and airstrip will greatly increase accessibility to the islands, which could increase tourism opportunities.
  • Furthermore, improved monitoring and enforcement of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) encircling the islands will be made possible by the increased government presence made possible by these developments, strengthening maritime security.

Implications for India:

  • India has demonstrated its commitment to regional security and cooperation through its development of Agaléga, in line with its Security and Growth for All in the Region (SAGAR) vision.
  • India hopes to promote goodwill and enhance its standing as a trustworthy and benevolent partner in the Indian Ocean Region by supporting smaller maritime nations like Mauritius in their efforts to develop and strengthen their capacities.
  • Nonetheless, India is solid in its commitment to upholding Mauritius’ sovereignty and has no plans to build a military installation on Agaléga.

Assistance in Maritime Security:

  • If Mauritius requests assistance in strengthening its maritime security capabilities, India is prepared to provide it.
  • Any such cooperation would respect sovereignty and mutual agreement by adhering to established diplomatic and military dialogue mechanisms.
  • India may offer information sharing, cooperative maritime security exercises, and material and technical support.


  • Agaléga’s cooperative development represents the long-lasting friendship and collaboration between Mauritius and India, which is based on mutual trust and shared interests.
  • By working together, both nations hope to achieve their goals for socioeconomic development while preserving the security and stability of the Indian Ocean region.

Practice Question: Talk about the importance of collaboration between India and Mauritius in the development of Agaléga Island in the Indian Ocean. What are the implications for regional security and diplomatic relations, and how does this collaboration fit into India’s maritime vision? (15 m/250 words)

5. GST collections up 12.54% in February

Topic: GS3 – Indian Economy – Issues related to mobilization of resources. 
Important for UPSC since it discusses fiscal policies, government revenue, and economic issues that affect India’s financial stability.

– With a 12.54% increase, the Goods and Services Tax (GST) revenue in India reached ₹1.68 lakh crore in February, which is the fourth-highest monthly collection and helps the country’s fiscal performance.

 GST Revenue Growth:

  • Revenues from the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India increased by 12.54% in February to ₹1.68 lakh crore.
  • The fourth-highest monthly collections were recorded in February, indicating a strong growth trend.

Yearly Comparison and Total Collections:

  • Although February’s collections were 3.3% less than January’s revised totals, they still represented the third-highest growth of the 2023–24 fiscal year.
  • In comparison to the same period last year, the total GST collections for the fiscal year increased by 11.7% to ₹18.4 lakh crore.

Breakdown of Collections:

  • Revenues increased by 13.9% as a result of domestic transactions, while imports of goods increased by 8.5%.
  • The net GST collection for February, after refunds, was ₹1.51 lakh crore, a 13.6% increase from the same month in 2023.

State-wise Performance:

  • Eighteen states saw smaller increases in domestic transaction revenues than the 13.9% national average growth, while five states saw revenue contractions.
  • There were notable drops of 14% and 13% in Mizoram and Manipur, respectively.

Regional Disparities and Quicker Growth:

  • Twelve states saw faster revenue growth than the national average, including Delhi, Kerala, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, and Maharashtra.
  • The Central GST (₹31,785 crore), State GST (₹39,615 crore), Integrated GST (₹84,098 crore), and GST compensation cess (₹12,839 crore) were among the components that made up February’s gross GST intake.

Government Settlements:

  • After regular settlement, the Central government received ₹73,641 crore for CGST and ₹75,569 crore for SGST, having settled ₹41,856 crore for CGST and ₹35,953 crore for SGST from the IGST collected.

PYQ: PYQ: List all of the indirect taxes that are included in India’s Goods and Services Tax (GST). Additionally, discuss the effects of the GST, which was implemented in India in July 2017, on revenue. (150 words, 10 seconds) (2019 UPSSC CSE (M) GS-3)

6. Unrestrained poaching is a major factor in the decline of leopards in Odisha.

Topic: GS3 – Environment – Conservation – Important species 
Because of poaching and habitat loss, Odisha’s leopard population has drastically declined, which has an impact on biodiversity and raises conservation concerns.

– According to the “Status of Leopards India” report, between 2018 and 2022, widespread poaching and habitat loss cause a 25.26% decline in the leopard population in Odisha (resulting in the loss of 192 leopards).

Additional information on this news:

  • Approximately one-fourth of the leopard population in Odisha is lost between 2018 and 2022, mostly as a result of poaching.
  • The “Status of Leopards India” report paints a bleak picture, estimating that there are only 568 leopards nationwide, a sharp decline from the previous estimate of 760.
  • Leopard densities in tiger reserves have gone up, suggesting that these protected areas are the primary focus of recovery efforts.
  • Only in protected areas such as tiger reserves in Similipal and Satkosia, and wildlife sanctuaries in Hirakud and Kotagarh, has there been evidence of leopard occupancy.
  • Major threats include habitat loss, road accidents, tiger and leopard skin trade, and bush meat poaching.
  • The seriousness of poaching is highlighted by the authorities’ seizure of 116 leopard skins between 2018 and 2024.
  • The state is urged by the report to improve habitat management, prey recovery, and patrolling outside of tiger reserves.

Poaching of Big Cats In India
Issues Contributing to Big Cat Poaching in India
– Demand in Traditional Medicine: Poaching for the illicit wildlife trade is fueled by the belief that tiger parts have therapeutic qualities.
– Human-Wildlife Conflict: Conflicts between humans and big cats can result in reprisals when human populations grow into big cat habitats.
– Loss of habitat and fragmentation: When natural habitats deteriorate and shrink, big cats are forced to live closer to populated areas, which raises risks.
– Limited Resources and Enforcement: The manpower and equipment required for efficient patrolling are frequently absent from anti-poaching operations, which are frequently underfunded.
– Lucrative Illegal Market: Poachers are strongly motivated by the high prices for large cat parts on international black markets.

Ways Forward to Address Poaching
– Enhancing Habitat Restoration and Protection: Define and safeguard important big cat habitats, make passageways available for them, and lessen habitat fragmentation.
– Improving Anti-Poaching Protocols: To identify and discourage poaching, make investments in improved technology, intelligence networks, and front-line employee training.
– Encouragement of Long-Term Human-Wildlife Coexistence: Reimburse communities for harm caused by disputes, increase consciousness, and devise plans to reduce engagements.
– Community Involvement and Awareness: Work with nearby communities to promote conservation, lessen reliance on forest resources, and alter perceptions of wildlife.
– International Cooperation: Stricter enforcement and cross-border cooperation are needed to take down the networks involved in the illegal wildlife trade.

Practice Question: Examine the causes of the big cat poaching in India and recommend a multifaceted strategy to address this enduring issue. (10 m / 150 words)

7. India will form a global coalition to safeguard big cats.

Topic: GS2 – Government – government policies, GS3 – Environment – conservation – Important species 
crucial for UPSC since it deals with global conservation, coordinating with sustainable development objectives, and highlighting India’s biodiversity leadership.

– In an effort to improve international collaboration for big cat conservation, the Union Cabinet approves the International Big Cat Alliance’s (IBCA) formation in India and allots Rs. 150 crore over a five-year period.

 Additional information on this news:

  • The International Big Cat Alliance (IBCA) is approved by the Union Cabinet to be established in India with a one-time budgetary support of Rs. 150 crore for a period of five years, from 2023–2024 to 2027–2028.
  • The Prime Minister emphasised India’s leadership in big cat conservation on Global Tiger Day 2019 and in the run-up to Project Tiger’s 50th anniversary in 2023, which is the source of the initiative.
  • In order to work together on big cat conservation, IBCA seeks to unite 96 big cat range countries, non-range countries, conservation partners, scientific organisations, and business groups.
  • The alliance aims to reverse the decline in big cat populations and strengthen the conservation agenda by establishing networks, exchanging best practices, and providing financial support.
  • Knowledge sharing, capacity building, networking, advocacy, financial and resource support, research, technical assistance, education and awareness are all components of the multipronged approach of IBCA.
  • Through a shared platform, brand ambassadors, and an emphasis on fusing biodiversity policies with sustainable development goals (SDGs), the framework envisions collaboration.
  • The Indian government provided the IBCA with an initial budget of Rs. 150 crore. Its governance structure consists of an Assembly of Members, a Standing Committee, and a Secretariat with its headquarters located in India.
  • The alliance’s financial resources will be enhanced by contributions from international institutions, public sector organisations, and bilateral and multilateral agencies.
  • The programme promotes ecosystem-based methods for biodiversity conservation, habitat restoration, and sustainable land-use practices, all of which are in line with the SDGs.
  • For the benefit of communities that depend on these ecosystems for their well-being, water and food security, and climate adaptation, IBCA stresses the significance of protecting big cats and their habitats.

Conservation of Big Cat Species
Need for Conservation
– Big cats play a key ecological role in preserving the balance of the ecosystem by controlling the numbers of their prey. They are apex predators.
– Biodiversity Indicators: Their existence serves as a gauge for the general health of an ecosystem.
Economic Value: Large cats draw tourists, which boosts local income and supports livelihoods.
– Cultural Significance: In many different societies, big cats are associated with strong cultural and symbolic values.

– Habitat Loss and Fragmentation: Big cat habitats are destroyed and fragmented as a result of deforestation, increased agriculture, and infrastructure development.
– Human-Wildlife Conflict: Conflicts with humans arise from resource competition, livestock theft, and retaliatory killings.
– Poaching and Illegal Trade: Large cats are hunted for their skins, as well as for live pet trade and body parts used in traditional medicine.
– Limited Capacity and Resources: Funding and skilled staff shortages frequently affect conservation efforts.

Way Forward
– Protected Areas and Connectivity: To promote gene flow and lessen isolation, protected areas should be expanded along with corridors.
– Human-Wildlife Conflict Mitigation: Creative solutions, compensation plans, and community-based programmes to reduce conflict.
– Strengthening intelligence networks, anti-poaching measures, and the enforcement of wildlife laws are some ways to combat poaching.
– Community Engagement: Providing alternate means of subsistence, encouraging the advantages of coexistence, and involving local communities in conservation efforts.
– International cooperation: working together to share best practices, combat the illegal wildlife trade, and promote transboundary conservation.

Practice Question: Analyse critically the difficulties encountered in India’s efforts to conserve big cat species. Make suggestions for a multifaceted strategy to effectively conserve them. (10 m / 150 words)

8. Housing plan for tribal groups at the centre is having difficulties because of incomplete data

Topic: GS2 – Governance – Government policies, GS2 –  Social Justice – Vulnerable sections 
The housing project known as PM-JANMAN highlights issues related to tribal welfare and governance in UPSC. These issues include data inconsistencies, potential exclusion of tribal beneficiaries, and governance challenges.

– Data inconsistencies between the Centre and states are impeding the sanctioning process for the PM Janjati Adivasi Nyay Maha Abhiyaan (PM-JANMAN) housing project, which could result in the exclusion of beneficiaries.

 Additional information on this news:

  • House sanctioning for the PM Janjati Adivasi Nyay Maha Abhiyaan (PM-JANMAN) housing project is taking longer than expected.
  • With just 1.59 lakh houses approved by February 15, the goal of 2.5 lakh houses sanctioned is not met.
  • 75 tribes that are classified as Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG) were counted using the PM Gati Shakti portal.
  • There are disparities in the data that the state governments and the Tribal Affairs Ministry have, which leads to delays.
  • In order to meet the January 15 deadline, states conduct surveys with incomplete data, which leaves out potential beneficiaries.
  • Tripura and Madhya Pradesh express apprehension regarding PVTGs discovered beyond villages notified by the Centre.
  • Launched in November, PM-JANMAN will spend ₹24,104 crore over three years to build roads and housing.

Lack of Accurate Data for Tribal Development:
– Ineffective policy design: In the absence of precise data, policymakers are unable to comprehend the unique requirements and difficulties that various tribal communities face, which results in interventions that are not well targeted.
– Inaccurate data: has the potential to cause resource misallocation, which could impede progress and possibly push some communities further behind.
– Limited accountability: can result from the inability to measure the impact of implemented programmes due to a lack of trustworthy data, which can also make it challenging to track progress.
– Increasing already-existing disparities: Inaccurate data may conceal the full scope of disparities both within and between tribal communities, impeding initiatives to close current divides and advance equitable development.

Way Forward:
– Increasing the quality of data collection: Make an investment in reliable techniques that guarantee inclusivity and deal with the underrepresentation of particular tribal communities.
– Involvement of the community: Collaborate with tribal communities to gather data so that their perspectives are heard and cultural sensitivity is taken into account.
– Data aggregation: To uncover deeper insights and guide targeted interventions, combine data by different factors such as age, gender, and particular tribal groups.
– Building capacity: To promote ownership and self-representation, tribal communities should be given more tools for gathering, analysing, and interpreting data.
Adoption of technology: Investigate using technology to ensure timely and accurate information by collecting, analysing, and disseminating data efficiently.

PM Janjati Adivasi Nyay Maha Abhiyaan (PM-JANMAN)
Launched: November 15, 2023, on Janjatiya Gaurav Divas
Aim: To improve the socio-economic condition of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) in India
Key Features:
○     Focus on 11 critical interventions
○     Implemented by 9 line Ministries/Departments
○     Total outlay of Rs. 24,104 crore
○     Central Share: Rs. 15,336 crore
○     State Share: Rs. 8,768 crore
○     Implementation period: FY 2023-24 to 2025-26

Expected Outcomes:
○     Saturation of PVTG households and habitations with basic facilities
○     Improved access to education, health, and nutrition
○     Enhanced road and telecom connectivity
○     Sustainable livelihood opportunities 

Key Interventions:
– Issuance of Aadhar Cards, Community Certificates, and Jan Dhan Accounts
– Provision of safe housing, clean drinking water, and sanitation
– Improved access to education and healthcare
– Skill development and livelihood training
– Promotion of Van Dhan Vikas Kendras
– Ensuring Minimum Support Price (MSP) for PVTG produce
– Strengthening of grievance redressal mechanisms

– A comprehensive programme called PM-JANMAN aims to address the various issues that PVTGs in India face.
– It could completely change PVTGs’ lives and reintegrate them into society at large.
– The programme represents a major advancement in the pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

PYQ: Why do the Indian tribal people go by the term “scheduled tribes”? List the main provisions for their advancement that are enshrined in the Indian Constitution. (12.5 m/200 words) (UPSC GS-1 2016 CSE (M))
Practice Question: Critically assess the difficulties in developing and executing successful development policies in India that arise from the absence of reliable data. Make several recommendations to deal with this problem. (15 m/250 words)

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