Daily Current Affairs 22 February 2024- Top News Of The Day

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Daily Current Affairs 22 February 2024- Top News Of The Day

1. Prominent Jurist Fali S. Nariman: A Legal Icon Who Molded India’s Court System

Topic: Important Topic for Prelims

– Renowned jurist and Senior Advocate Fali S. Nariman, who was 95 years old when he passed away, was well-known for his remarkable 75-year legal career.
– Because he was involved in so many important cases during his time as a Senior Advocate at the Supreme Court of India, Nariman made a lasting impression on the legal community.

More about the news:Advocacy in the Second Judges Case:

  • Nariman was instrumental in advancing judicial independence in the Second Judges Case of 1981, as he appealed the ruling that granted the Center ultimate control over judicial appointments and transfers.
  • As a result of his comments, the Supreme Court collegium system was established, highlighting the significance of consultation between the President and the Chief Justice of India.

Involvement in the Third Judges Case:

  • In the Third Judges Case of 1998, Nariman’s proficiency was demonstrated when he helped the Supreme Court elucidate the process for appointing judges.
  • As a result of his arguments, the collegium system was expanded when the Chief Justice was mandated to confer with other senior judges prior to recommending judicial appointments.

Opposition to the NJAC Act:

  • Nariman’s resistance to the National Judicial Appointment Commission (NJAC) Act, 2014 was another example of his legal acumen.
  • He argued against the Act, claiming that by enabling the legislature and government to be involved in the appointment and selection of judges, it would compromise judicial independence.
  • The Supreme Court declared the NJAC Act illegal as a result of his efforts.

Defending Fundamental Rights:

  • Nariman intervened to preserve fundamental rights in the 1967 Golaknath Case, contesting Parliament’s authority to limit these rights through constitutional modifications.
  • His support helped the Court establish a precedent for preserving constitutional liberties when it ruled that Parliament cannot violate fundamental rights.

Legal Representation in High-Profile Cases:

  • Nariman’s legal expertise was demonstrated in well-known instances including the TMA Pai Foundation Case and the Union Carbide Case, where he fought for the rights of minorities and victims, respectively.
  • His involvement in these cases demonstrated his dedication to the rule of law and constitutional values.

Role in Resolving Political Crises:

  • Nariman’s commitment to preserving democratic values and constitutional standards was demonstrated by his involvement in cases like as the Arunachal Political Crisis Case.
  • In the face of political unrest, his arguments before the Supreme Court contributed to the restoration of democratic rule.

Legacy in Water Dispute Resolution:

  • Nariman’s efforts to settle the water-sharing conflict in the Cauvery between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka demonstrated his ability to negotiate effectively and his dedication to federalism.
  • The Supreme Court praised his efforts in obtaining temporary orders and defending Karnataka’s interests, underscoring his extraordinary legal ability.


  • The Indian legal system has been profoundly impacted by Fali S. Nariman’s remarkable career as a legal luminary and Senior Advocate at the Supreme Court of India, which emphasized the value of judicial independence, fundamental rights, and constitutional principles.
  • Generations of legal experts will be motivated to maintain the rule of law and guarantee justice for everyone by his legacy.

2. For the 2024–25 season, the central government has raised the fair price of sugarcane to Rs 340 per quintal.

Topic: GS3 – Agriculture – MSP, Economies of Animal – Rearing
In view of the Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane and changes to the National Livestock Mission, which emphasize significant government initiatives in the agriculture sector, this topic is pertinent for both the Prelims and Mains exams.

– For the Sugar Season 2024–2025, the Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane will rise from the current Rs 315 per quintal to Rs 340 per quintal, per a decision made by the Central Government.
– Under the direction of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs reached this decision, which is important for states that produce a lot of sugarcane, such Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. 

More about the news:Historical Price Increase:

  • With an almost 8% rise above the FRP for the current season, the new FRP of Rs 340 per quintal, payable at a sugar recovery rate of 10.25%, represents a historic increase.
  • Furthermore, because it is 107% more expensive than the A2+FL cost of sugarcane, it guarantees farmers’ wealth.

Impact on Sugarcane Farmers:

  • The government’s pledge to double farmers’ income is reaffirmed by the move, which is anticipated to help more than 5 crore sugarcane growers.
  • It is guaranteed that farmers will receive at least Rs 315.10 per quintal, even in situations where the recovery rate is lower.

Government Support and Policy Interventions:

  • The sugar industry has never had lower cane arrears thanks to the Central Government’s prompt policy measures.
  • Because of policy measures that guarantee farmers receive their cane dues on schedule, sugar mills are now financially independent and no longer need government support. 

Modification of National Livestock Mission:

  • Additionally, the Cabinet authorized changes to the National Livestock Mission, which included new initiatives including the creation of horse, donkey, mule, and camel enterprises.
  • With more coverage for animals and fewer beneficiary shares for farmers, the Livestock Insurance scheme has been streamlined.

Continuation of Flood Management Programme:

  • Additionally, the continuation of the “Flood Management and Border Areas Programme” with a five-year budget of Rs. 4,100 crore was approved by the Cabinet.
  • The development and management of floods in border areas are the main objectives of this initiative.


  • The government’s dedication to agricultural expansion and rural development is demonstrated by its decision to boost the FRP of sugarcane, as well as by changes made to the National Livestock Mission and the maintenance of flood management programs.
  • It is anticipated that these initiatives will help farmers and advance the general well-being of the nation’s agriculture industry.

About Fair and remunerative price (FRP):
What is it?
– The lowest price that sugar mills will pay farmers for sugarcane is known as the fair and remunerative price, or FRP.

Who determines it?
– The Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices’ (CACP) recommendations serve as the basis for the FRP determination process by the Union government’s Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA).

– The Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966 establishes the sugarcane’s “FRP.”

– Numerous factors are taken into account while determining the suggested FRP, including as intercrop price parity, domestic and international pricing, production costs, and demand-supply scenarios.

– Whether sugar mills make a profit or not, FRP guarantees farmers their margins.
– This will be applicable everywhere in the country.
– Some states—Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh—announce a State Advised Price in addition to the FRP; this price is usually higher.

PYQ: The Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane is approved by the (2015) 
(a) Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices
(b) Directorate of Marketing and Inspection, Ministry of Agriculture
(c) Agricultural Produce Market Committee
(d) Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs

Ans: (a)
Practice Question: Examine the Central Government’s recent decision to increase the Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) of sugarcane for the 2024–2025 sugar season and the changes made to the National Livestock Mission critically. Consider the possible socio-economic effects of these choices on rural communities, farmers, and the agriculture industry as a whole. (15 m/250 words)

3. In the midst of geopolitical tensions, the Greek prime minister praises India’s global role and calls for cooperation.

Topic: GS2 – International Relations – Bilateral Relations 
In the framework of Indo-Greek interactions, this topic is pertinent for both the Prelims and Mains.

– During his speech at the inaugural Raisina Dialogue session, visiting Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis highlighted India’s importance as a leading democracy in the Global South and a broker of compromise.
– He emphasized the growing significance of India in influencing international discussions and tackling significant issues, recognizing the critical role played by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in this respect.

More about the news:Call for International Cooperation and Partnership:

  • In order to effectively handle global concerns, Kyriakos Mitsotakis emphasized the necessity for partnership and cooperation among nations, underscoring the primary purpose of the international system.
  • He issued a warning about the negative effects of fighting and emphasized the value of communication and reaching an agreement when settling disagreements.

Concerns Over Geopolitical Tensions:

  • The prime minister of Greece voiced concerns about the heightened global tensions, pointing to the Middle East conflicts and the current war in Ukraine.
  • He underlined that in order to solve the humanitarian crises and regional destabilization brought on by these wars, long-term de-escalation initiatives and international involvement are essential.

India’s Role in Addressing Global Challenges:

  • Kyriakos Mitsotakis called on India to take a leading role in resolving global crises, stressing the need for India to address the situation in Ukraine in particular.
  • He highlighted the interconnectivity of states and our shared obligation to preserve international stability and the rules-based order, emphasizing India’s role in preserving these things.

Strengthening India-Greece Relations:

  • Discussions for strengthening Greece-Indian collaboration in the areas of connectivity, space exploration, and military manufacture also took place during the visit.
  • Both nations pledged to strengthen their bilateral relations and advance regional connectivity, in part by supporting the India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC).


  • The relevance of the Greek Prime Minister’s speech on democracies that work was highlighted by External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar, highlighting the significance of India’s expanding global engagement.
  • He emphasized that, as civilizational states, Greece and India had a shared obligation to contribute to the development of the modern international order and to take advantage of chances for cooperation and mutual gain.

What factors are responsible for strengthening the relationship between Greece and India?
Strategic Geographic Positions: Greece and India are both in strategically significant geopolitical locations, which makes them valuable strategic allies in their respective areas.
Military Cooperation: Growing strategic and defensive cooperation is seen in the joint military drills between the Greek and Indian armed forces, as well as the Indian Navy and Air Force.
Infrastructure and Economic Development: The Greece’s economic reforms, along with the possible India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor (IMEC), create new commercial opportunities.
Propaganda for Broader Relations: Greece’s ties with India are strengthened by its backing of the EU-India Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement and its standing as a trustworthy partner in the EU and NATO.
Regional Stability is Interconnected: The security of the Indian Ocean and East Mediterranean regions is intertwined, highlighting the significance of the Greece-India alliance for international stability.
Cultural and Educational Exchanges: Mutual understanding and respect are strengthened through efforts to strengthen people-to-people ties through student exchange programs, cultural events, and media collaboration.

Practice Question: Examine India’s bilateral ties with Greece and other nations, paying particular attention to initiatives to strengthen collaboration in space exploration, military production, and connectivity initiatives. Provide tactics that India can use to expand its diplomatic reach, fortify international alliances, and successfully support the upkeep of world peace, security, and development. (15 m/250 words)

4. Gaganyaan Human Spaceflight Mission’s Cryogenic Engine Receives ISRO Certification

Topic: GS3 – Science & Technology – Achievements of Indian S&T; Indigenization of technology 
In light of India’s advancements in the development of critical technologies for its intended Gaganyaan missions, such as the successful qualification and certification of the cryogenic engine for crewed spaceflight, this topic is pertinent for both Prelims and Mains.

– An important step forward in India’s aspirations to send people into space has been accomplished with the qualification and certification of the cryogenic engine designed for the Gaganyaan missions by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).

More about the news:Certification of Cryogenic Engine for Gaganyaan Missions:

  • The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) declared that the critical cryogenic engine’s performance has been approved and certified for use in carrying people into space. The engine is meant to be used in the LVM3 spacecraft for India’s Gaganyaan missions.
  • Gaganyaan is the name of India’s proposed first-ever human flight mission, which would place a three-person crew in a 400-kilometer orbit for three days and then safely return them to Earth.
  • The first unmanned Gaganyaan-1 mission is scheduled for sometime in 2024. The launch vehicle for these missions will be ISRO’s heavy-lift launcher, the LVM, which can accommodate solid, liquid, and cryogenic stages for crewed spaceflight.

Successful Vacuum Test of CE20 Cryogenic Engine:

  • At its High Altitude Test Facility in Mahendragiri, Tamil Nadu, ISRO performed the seventh vacuum test on the CE20 cryogenic engine on February 14. This test is essential for the cryogenic stage of lift-off.
  • This milestone, which ISRO emphasizes demonstrates the engine’s fitness for crewed spaceflight, represents a key accomplishment in the human-rating process of the CE20 engine for Gaganyaan missions.

Completion of Acceptance Tests:

  • The CE20 was subjected to 39 hot fire tests under various operating conditions before to the vacuum testing. The cumulative time of these tests was 8810 seconds (2 hours 26 minutes), exceeding the minimum standard time for human rating of 6350 seconds (1 hour 45 minutes).
  • Furthermore, acceptance tests for the flight engine assigned to the first Gaganyaan mission have been successfully completed.
  • This flight engine, which powers the LVM3’s higher stages, has an impulse of 442.5 seconds and a thrust capacity of 19–22 tons.

Technological Developments for Human-Space Flight:

  • The creation of a human-rated launch vehicle is a component of ISRO’s larger initiatives, which also include other testing and technological developments required for the intended mission of human space flight.
  • These include the creation of emergency escape plans for the crew, the advancement of crew management practices with regard to training, recuperation, and rehabilitation, and the development of life support systems to guarantee a safe environment for crew members in space.
  • Additionally, preparatory missions are being planned to show the technological readiness levels prior to the manned Gaganyaan expedition.
  • These initiatives demonstrate ISRO’s all-encompassing strategy for accomplishing India’s lofty objectives in human space exploration.


  • The National Quantum Mission’s goals are being realized in significant part thanks to the call for pre-proposals, which demonstrates India’s dedication to developing quantum technology.
  • The objective involves teamwork, creativity, and tactical planning to position India as a leader in the world’s quantum economy.

Significance of the Gaganyan Mission
The human spaceflight programme offers numerous advantages, both material and immaterial, as it presents opportunities for scientific investigation and progress. The scientific community worldwide as a whole as well as India may gain much from these breakthroughs and research in science.

– To develop future technological capabilities: It is anticipated that the Gaganyaan project’s success would spur further reasonably priced human spaceflight initiatives to investigate the solar system and beyond, sample return missions, and other scientific research.
– An exceptional chance to motivate young people: Anticipated achievements of Gaganyaan will motivate students to pursue careers in science and technology, especially in demanding roles that foster creativity and innovation in the realm of space research.
– Strong international relations: It will create opportunities for diplomatic interaction with other spacefaring countries, clearing the path for cooperative missions, knowledge sharing, and international cooperation in space exploration.
– Scientific breakthrough: Gaganyaan’s assistance in setting up scientific studies in microgravity can result in ground-breaking findings in a variety of disciplines, including biology, material science, and medicine.
– Economic expansion and job creation: The Gaganyaan mission has the potential to boost India’s economy by fostering the growth of space-related enterprises, technology spin-offs, and job creation.
PYQ: Consider the following statements: (2016) The Mangalyaan launched by ISRO
1) also known as the Mars Orbiter Mission
2) made India, after the United States, the second nation with a spacecraft orbiting Mars.
3) made India the first nation to successfully launch a spacecraft into orbit around Mars on its first try. 

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3 

Ans: (c)
Practice Question: Examine the possibilities and obstacles facing ISRO in order to guarantee the accomplishment of the Gaganyaan missions and its more general space exploration goals. (10 m / 150 words)

5. Greek PM urges India, “Let’s proceed with IMEC despite Gaza war.”

Topic: GS2 – International Relations – Bilateral Relations
For regional connectivity, geopolitics, and commercial partnerships—all of which are pertinent to the UPSC exam—the India-Middle East commercial Corridor (IMEC) is essential.

– Despite the Gaza crisis, Greek Prime Minister Nikos Mitsotakis calls on Greece and India to continue developing the India-Middle East Economic Corridor, highlighting its potential for economic growth and regional connectivity.

Additional information on this news:

  • Despite the unstable effects of the Israeli conflict in Gaza, Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis emphasized the need to continue with the India-Middle East Economic Corridor (IMEC).
  • He urged Greece and India to keep working toward the realization of IMEC’s great potential, emphasizing that the conflict in Gaza and the unrest in the Middle East should not be taken into account.
  • Mitsotakis and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi talked about intentions to enhance bilateral relations, such as tripling trade, completing a migration and mobility agreement, and collaborating on the co-production and co-development of military hardware.
  • Greece views itself as a natural partner for IMEC, acting as a gateway to Europe and beyond, given its command of the largest merchant maritime fleet in the world.
  • The IMEC was established in September 2023 and includes founding members such as Saudi Arabia, the UAE, France, Germany, Italy, Mauritius, India, and the European Union. However, meetings have been hampered for the previous six months due to the fighting in Gaza.
  • An important trading hub for the projected IMEC route from India to Europe via the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Israel, ultimately arriving at Greece’s Piraeus Port, is the port of Haifa in Israel, which is controlled by the Adani Group of India.

India-Middle East Economic Corridor (IMEC)
Inaugurated in September 2023: Seek to strengthen commercial connections between Europe, the Middle East, and India.
Two Corridors:
○     East: Connects India to the Gulf region.
○     North: Connects the Gulf region to Europe.

Focus: Creates dependable and reasonably priced ship-to-rail networks to supplement the current marine routes.
○     Increase trade efficiency and accessibility.
○     Enhance regional economic cooperation.
○     Generate jobs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

○     Early stage of development.
○     Requires cooperation from multiple countries.
○     Geopolitical tensions in the region pose potential hurdles.

●     considered a possible rival to China’s Belt and Road Initiative.

India – Greece Relations
Historical Ties:
– India and Greece have longstanding historical and cultural connections that date back to Alexander the Great’s reign.
– Mutual understanding is fostered by the rich philosophical, artistic, and architectural traditions of both countries.

Diplomatic Relations:
– In 1950, formal diplomatic relations were established, with embassies located in New Delhi and Athens.
– Frequent diplomatic meetings and high-level visits have improved ties between the two countries.

Economic Collaboration:
– With an emphasis on industries like information technology, textiles, and pharmaceuticals, trade relations have greatly increased.
– cooperative initiatives to strengthen economic cooperation and investigate fresh trade and investment opportunities.

Defence Cooperation:
– expanding defense cooperation through combined military drills to strengthen strategic relationships.
– talks about regional security issues and the transfer of defense technology.

Cultural Exchanges:
– Programs for cultural exchange have strengthened ties between individuals.
– campaigns to highlight both countries’ rich cultural histories and to encourage travel.

Multilateral Engagement:
– cooperation with international organizations such as the United Nations, where both nations cooperate on a range of world problems.
– mutual assistance in tackling issues like sustainable development and climate change.

Technology and Innovation:
– a focus on partnerships for research and development as well as the promotion of innovation and technology exchange.
– collaboration on satellite technology and space exploration.

Challenges and Opportunities:
– use coordinated efforts and shared intelligence to address shared issues like terrorism and extremism.
– Possibilities for improving collaboration in the fields of environmental preservation and renewable energy.

Conclusion: Greece and India have a strong partnership that spans several industries. With both countries’ relations growing stronger, the groundwork for a durable and mutually beneficial alliance is laid.

PYQ: Unlike the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Greece, the Indian subcontinent’s culture and customs have been maintained intact to the current day. Remark. (12.5 m/200 words) (2015, UPSSC CSE (M) GS-1)
Practice Question: Analyze the origins and development of India-Greece relations, paying particular attention to the philosophical and cultural ties between the two countries. Evaluate the current importance of these connections, especially in light of joint international endeavors, defense cooperation, and economic cooperation. (10 m / 150 words)

6. CE20 cryogenic engine, previously tested by ISRO, has been rated for human use on Gaganyaan missions.

Topic: GS3 – Science and Technology –  Space Technology
Important for UPSC: Gaganyaan is advanced by ISRO’s human-rated CE20 cryogenic engine, demonstrating technological prowess and guaranteeing safe human spaceflight.

– By human-rating its CE20 cryogenic engine for Gaganyaan missions, passing stringent ground testing, and adhering to safety regulations for human transportation, ISRO accomplishes a significant milestone.

Additional information on this news:

  • With the human-rating of its CE20 cryogenic engine for the Gaganyaan missions, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) accomplished a noteworthy milestone.
  • Human-rating guarantees that people can be transported safely by the system.
  • At the High Altitude Test Facility, a sequence of seven vacuum ignition tests were completed with the final ground qualification test on February 13.
  • For the Gaganyaan program, all ground qualification tests for the CE20 engine have been completed satisfactorily.
  • 39 hot fire tests totaling 8,810 seconds were conducted on four engines, exceeding the 6,350 second minimum human rating qualifying criterion.
  • Successful completion of acceptance tests was also achieved for the flight engine assigned to the first unmanned Gaganyaan mission (G1) scheduled for Q2 2024.

7. Fali Nariman passes away; he supported an independent judiciary.

Topic: Important Topic for Prelims
Understanding the connection between democracy, an independent judiciary, and the protection of constitutional rights, governance, and stability are essential for UPSC.

– Fali Reknowned for upholding judicial independence and secular norms, distinguished jurist Sam Nariman, a former Additional Solicitor-General, passes away at the age of 95. renowned for his legal contributions and wit.

Additional information on this news:

  • Fali At the age of 95, Sam Nariman, a well-known lawyer and former Additional Solicitor-General who was well-known for promoting secular ideals, departed from this life.
  • He promoted judicial independence and underlined the significance of impartial and independent judges as a fundamental component of the Constitution.
  • He expressed disapproval of the Supreme Court’s handling of the Sabarimala case and expressed worries that judges could pursue government post-retirement positions, which could undermine public confidence in judicial sanctity.
  • Nariman’s resignation throughout the Emergency was a statement of his opposition to censorship and his dedication to free speech.
  • In his book “God Save the Supreme Court,” he emphasized the need of a free press that represents the people and attacked the judges’ lack of camaraderie.

Significance of independent Judiciary and democracy
– Maintains the Rule of Law: Makes sure that everyone, regardless of money or status, is bound by the same laws.
– Preserves Fundamental Rights: Preserves personal freedoms and acts as a check on excessive government power.
– Offers a fair and impartial forum for settling disputes in order to provide impartial justice.
– Encourages Accountability: Makes government agencies answerable for their deeds.
– Enhances Democracy: Crucial to the smooth operation of a checks-and-balances democracy.

– Political interference: refers to efforts made to sway court rulings by persuasion, money, or nominations.
– Corruption: The abuse of authority or bribery by judges or other court employees.
– Lack of Resources: Insufficient funds have the potential to impede effective operations and restrict access to justice.
– Public Misunderstanding: The public’s trust might be weakened by unfavorable opinions about the court.
– Balancing Security and Rights: Keeping individual liberties and national security concerns in check.

A robust democracy must preserve an independent judiciary, but doing so will require resolving certain issues in order to guarantee the court’s efficacy and legitimacy.

Practice Question: Talk about how a thriving democracy and an impartial judiciary work hand in hand. In what ways does the judiciary’s independence support democratic institutions in their efficient operation?(10 m / 150 words)

8. The tiny, hot helium stars that astronomers were searching for are discovered.

Topic: GS3 – Science and Technology – Space
Comprehending binary-stripped helium stars is crucial for UPSC since it expands our knowledge of astrophysics and connects us to cosmic processes and stellar evolution.

– The discovery of binary-stripped helium stars, which confirmed astronomical theories, is discussed in the article. It looks at their traits, the dynamics of binary systems, and how they relate to our knowledge of cosmic processes and star evolution.


  • In stars larger than eight solar masses, astronomers predicted a large number of binary-stripped helium stars.
  • Ten years of searching were needed because, in spite of expectations, only one such star in the eight to 25 solar mass range was discovered.

Significance of Helius Stars:

  • Stars in a unique class: tiny, hot helium-covered orbs.
  • The validity of astrophysical theories is reinforced by the confirmation of theoretical predictions.

Implications for Understanding Stars:

  • From the production of heavy elements to the discharge of gravitational waves, stars serve as cosmic engines, providing insights into a variety of cosmic effects.
  • Fusion and balance: An explanation of how nuclear fusion keeps stars in balance by preventing them from collapsing.

Discovery Process:

  • A group under the direction of Professor Maria Drout spent seven years collecting stars and verifying theories.
  • used an ultraviolet-sensitive telescope to find putative helium stars in binary systems.

Identification Criteria:

  • The majority of stars that have more than eight solar masses are thought to be in binary systems.
  • Outliers in Brightness: Stars were cataloged taking into account the influence of their companions, based on brightness outliers.
  • Variations in speed were investigated as a potential sign of a companion star.

Characteristics of Class 1 Stars:

  • Hydrogen Lacking: Class 1 stars are abundant in helium but deficient in hydrogen.
  • Companions: Companions classified as compact objects (neutron stars or black holes) or low-mass main sequence stars.

Future Implications:

  • Class 1 stars are predicted to die as hydrogen-poor supernovae, leaving behind neutron stars as the supernova outcome.
  • Strong collisions between neutron stars can result in kilonova explosions, which release gravitational waves.


  • By shedding light on the hitherto mysterious binary-stripped helium stars, the discovery advances our knowledge of astrophysical processes and stellar evolution.


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