The Hindu Editorial Analysis- 6 March 2024

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The Hindu Editorial Analysis- 6 March 2024

1. Green employment and the issue of gender inequality

Topic: GS3 – Indian Economy – Issues related to development and employment 
crucial for UPSC in addressing gender gaps in India’s green transition while adhering to social justice and sustainable development objectives.

– The underrepresentation of women in the green job sector in India is highlighted in this article, which draws attention to gender disparities in spite of the growing emphasis on low-carbon development.
– It highlights issues, suggests fixes, and urges the use of inclusive tactics to empower women during the shift.

 Gender Disparities in Green Jobs:

  • In India, the capacity for renewable energy increased by 250% between 2015 and 2021; however, women made up only 11% of the solar rooftop industry.
  • While manufacturing and infrastructure are primarily dominated by men, traditional industries like apparel, textiles, and food have higher proportions of female employees.

Training and Social Norms:

  • According to a 2023 study, social norms were cited as obstacles for women, and 85% of green skills training was given to men.
  • Women are underrepresented in STEM fields, safety concerns are raised, and they are thought to be unfit for technical jobs.

Short and Long-Term Benefits of Women’s Representation:

  • Short-term, higher rates of labour force participation and a reduction in gender bias in the workforce can be achieved through increasing the representation of women.
  • Over time, it fosters women’s empowerment by generating social, technical, and economic opportunities.

Data Gaps and the Need for Mapping:

  • Mapping emerging areas for green growth is necessary because there is a dearth of data on women’s participation in green jobs.
  • Compiling data that is broken down by gender via recurring labour force surveys is essential to comprehending the roles that women play in the green transition. 

Global Context and COP 28 Initiatives:

  • Initiatives like the “Gender-Responsive Just Transitions and Climate Action Partnership” at COP 28 were prompted by the fact that women are falling short of sustainability and climate targets on a global scale.
  • Improved data, focused funding, and skill development should be the main priorities in transition planning.

Education Gap and Bridging Disparities:

  • Though women make up 42.7% of STEM graduates, their representation in critical industries for the green transition, such as engineering, manufacturing, and construction, is only 30.8%.
  • In order to close this gap, there is an urgent need for experiential education, mentoring, scholarships, and awareness raising.

Financial Support for Women Entrepreneurs:

  • Financial products and policies that prioritise gender can enable female entrepreneurs to join the green transition market.
  • To fully realise women’s potential, financial literacy initiatives, networks of support, and collateral-free lending are essential.

Leadership Roles and Gender-Specific Needs:

  • Increasing the proportion of women in leadership roles guarantees that low-carbon development strategies take gender-specific needs into account.
  • argues for collaborations between the public and private sectors as well as with stakeholders to maximise the use of innovation, technology, and funding.

omprehensive Gender-Just Transition Strategy:

  • calls for a multifaceted approach that prioritises skill development, employment, social protection, and a reduction in the amount of caregiving.
  • Companies are urged to acknowledge the importance of gender justice, removing obstacles and creating fair employment opportunities in order to promote an inclusive green transition.
  • Developing women’s capacity and helping them to meet the demands of the changing workplace are vital.
  • advocates for a future in the green jobs sector that is inclusive and socially equitable.


  • To summarise, tackling gender imbalances in green jobs in India necessitates all-encompassing approaches that include training, education, data gathering, funding, and leadership prospects.
  • India can achieve a fair and comprehensive shift to a low-carbon economy while also benefiting from women’s empowerment and sustainable development by concentrating on these factors.

Practice Question: Consider how important it is to address gender inequality in India’s shift to green jobs in order to achieve sustainable development. (15 m/250 words)

2. The characteristics of household consumption

Topic: GS3 – Indian Economy 
Important for UPSC: HCES 2022–2023 sheds light on India’s economic dynamics, assisting in the creation of policies and the comprehension of socioeconomic patterns.

– The release of India’s Household Consumption Expenditure Survey 2022–23 is discussed in the article, with particular attention paid to the survey’s historical significance, methodological changes, and economic insights.
– It offers detailed information on consumption trends that takes into account the changing socioeconomic conditions in the country.

Survey Overview:

  • The long-awaited HCES 2022–23 was made public by NSSO, which was significant because the previous household consumption data was from 2011–12.
  • records the amount of money Indian households spend on consumables, which helps create consumer price indices.

Historical Significance:

  • HCES was founded in 1950–1951, and it made significant contributions to sociological and economic research as well as the estimation of the head count ratio for poverty.
  • essential to determining the socioeconomic landscape of India and comprehending consumer trends.

Impact of COVID-19:

  • Due to the pandemic, the survey that was originally scheduled for 2020–21 started in August 2022, demonstrating flexibility and resiliency.
  • The focus of the current 2023–24 phase is on recording changing patterns of household consumption.

Methodological Shift:

  • Positive transition from conventional techniques to computer-assisted personal interviews, increasing productivity.
  • Tablet data entry ensured streamlined scrutiny by speeding up collection and processing.

Sample Size and Design:

  • 2,61,746 households that were carefully chosen through statistically sound sampling were engaged.
  • In keeping with ‘New India,’ the survey featured up-to-date questions and a three-part form for thorough investigation.

Modernization and Tradition:

  • Effective data gathering combined traditional and modern methods, imputed values for domestic products and social welfare programme items.
  • kept the traditional approach while developing imputation for social welfare programme items.

Economic Insights:

  • In India, the average monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) is ₹6,459 in urban areas and ₹3,773 in rural areas.
  • Figures increase to ₹3,860 and ₹6,521 with imputed values, respectively, offering complex economic insights.

Trends over Time:

  • A comparison of 1999–2000 and 2022–2023 shows changes in the MPCE composition.
  • Spending on processed foods, non-food items, fresh fruits, and cereals has increased while the percentage of expenditure on cereals has decreased.

Policy Implications:

  • A cooperative endeavour, HCES is a dependable instrument for forming economic policies in New India.
  • Within six months of its release, the fact sheet provides national and state-level key estimates with low relative standard errors.


  • HCES 2022–2023 offers in-depth insights into India’s shifting economic landscape by fusing modernity with historical significance.
  • An important tool that helps statisticians, researchers, and policymakers make well-informed decisions when it comes to economic planning.

PYQ: In a given year in India, official poverty lines are higher in some States than in others because (2019)   
(a) State-by-state variations exist in poverty rates
(b) Different states have different price points.
(c) Each state has a different gross state product.
(d) Public distribution quality differs from state to state

Ans: (b)
Practice Question: Analyse how the Household Consumption Expenditure Survey 2022–2023 is influencing economic policy and helping to comprehend how India’s socioeconomic patterns are changing.(10 m / 150 words)

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