Daily Current Affairs 26 February 2024- Top News Of The Day

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Daily Current Affairs 26 February 2024- Top News Of The Day

1. Amid a crackdown on child marriages, the Assam government is moving to repeal the antiquated Muslim Marriage Registration Act of 1935.

Topic: GS2 – Governance – Government policies – Interventions for development in various sectors 
Knowing the facts surrounding the Assam government’s decision to repeal the Assam Muslim Marriage and Divorce Registration Act of 1935 makes this topic pertinent for both Prelims and Mains.

– Following a Cabinet meeting, the Assam government made the significant decision to repeal the Assam Muslim Marriage and Divorce Registration Act of 1935.
– The decision means that the 89-year-old Act will be repealed through the ratification of the “Assam Repealing Ordinance 2024.”

More about the news:Background and Purpose of the Act:

  • The Act, which was passed in 1935, controls how Muslim marriages and divorces in Assam are registered.
  • The initial voluntary provision of registration was replaced with mandatory registration in a 2010 amendment.
  • In accordance with Muslim personal law, the Act permits the state to issue licences to Muslims for the registration of marriage and divorce.

Reasons for Repeal:

  • The Act’s provisions have led to child marriages, which is why its repeal was decided upon.
  • The decision was largely influenced by the Act’s provision for marriage registration below the legal age, according to Chief Minister Himanta Biswa Sarma.
  • The Act’s informal registration mechanism was criticised by the Cabinet for being out of date and for allegedly encouraging non-compliance with established standards.

Link to Uniform Civil Code (UCC):

  • The Act’s repeal is in line with the Assam government’s larger goal of enacting a Uniform Civil Code (UCC), which is in line with recent changes in Uttarakhand, which is governed by the BJP.
  • Minister Jayanta Malla Baruah highlighted this link and said that following repeal, Muslims would have to register marriages under the Special Marriage Act.

Connection to Crackdown on Child Marriages:

  • Removing the Act is a result of the state’s campaign against child marriage, which resulted in more than 4,000 arrests last year.
  • It is believed that the clause permitting guardians of minors to apply for marriages encourages child marriages.
  • Proponents contend that targeted amendments that preserved the Act’s decentralisation and simplicity could have addressed child marriage concerns without completely repealing the Act.

Concerns and Implications:

  • Opponents and supporters of the opposition alike voice worries about the consequences of removing the Act.
  • They contend that because of its greater complexity and centralised procedures, replacing it with the Special Marriage Act may result in fewer registrations.
  • In addition to creating opportunities for unregistered marriages, the lack of approved kazis could exacerbate already-existing issues.


  • The government’s resolve to stop child marriages and implement a Uniform Civil Code is demonstrated by the decision to repeal the Assam Muslim Marriage and Divorce Registration Act of 1935.
  • But worries about the possible fallout from doing away with the Act remain, underscoring the need for nuanced strategies to deal with social issues while maintaining accessibility and ease of use in marriage registration procedures.

What is the Uniform Civil Code?
– Article 44 of the Constitution mentions the UCC as one of the Directive Principles of State Policy, which states that the government should endeavour to create a uniform civil code for all Indian citizens.
– The UCC’s implementation, however, is at the government’s discretion, according to the framers of the Constitution.
– The Portuguese Civil Code of 1867 is the only state in India that has a UCC, and that state is Goa. Uttarakhand was recently added to the list as well.

India’s Supreme Court’s Position on the UCC: Mohd. Ahmed Khan v. Shah Bano Begum, 1985:
– The Court called for the implementation of Article 44, noting that “it is a matter of regret that it has remained a dead letter.”
– In later cases like Sarla Mudgal v. Union of India, 1995, and John Vallamattom v. Union of India, 2003, this demand was reaffirmed.

Maria Luiza Valentina Pereira vs. Jose Paulo Coutinho Example, 2019:
– The Court urged the uniform civil code to be implemented throughout India, hailing Goa as a “shining example” where “the uniform civil code is applicable to all, regardless of religion except while protecting certain limited rights.”

Law Commission’s Stance:
– In a 2018 consultation paper on “Reforms of family law,” the 21st Law Commission, led by former Supreme Court judge Justice Balbir Singh Chauhan, noted that the “formulation of a Uniform Civil Code is neither necessary nor desirable at this stage.”
– It emphasised that secularism and the nation’s dominant plurality should coexist. Nonetheless, it suggested that prejudices and discriminatory practices found in current personal laws be changed.
– Recognising that over three years have passed since the first consultation paper was released.
– The 22nd Law Commission, led by Justice (Retd) Rituraj Awasthi, published a notice in 2022 asking for feedback on the UCC from a range of stakeholders, including the general public and religious organisations. 

PYQ: Examine the National Child Policy’s principal provisions and provide an update on its implementation status. (12.5 m/200 words) (UPSC GS-2 CSE (M) 2016)
Practice Question: Talk about the reasons for and consequences of the Assam government’s decision to repeal the Assam Muslim Marriage and Divorce Registration Act of 1935. (15 m/250 words)

2. Amendments to Promote Rooftop Solar Projects and Consumer Rights in the Electricity Sector are Introduced by the Ministry of Power

Topic: GS2 – Governance – Government policies – Interventions for development in various sectors
In the context of comprehending energy policies, renewable energy initiatives, and infrastructure development, this topic is pertinent for both the Prelims and Mains exams.

– To expedite rooftop solar project installation and include provisions regarding connections in residential societies, the Ministry of Power has proposed amendments to the Electricity (Rights of Consumers) Rules, 2020.
– These amendments, which were notified on February 22, are intended to improve customer convenience and streamline procedures.

More about the news:Streamlining Feasibility Studies for Rooftop Solar Projects:

  • Distribution companies (DISCOMs) were previously mandated to carry out rooftop solar project feasibility studies within 20 days of receiving an application.
  • This deadline has been shortened to 15 days by the most recent changes.
  • Furthermore, DISCOMs are no longer required to finish a technical feasibility study prior to accepting applications for the installation of solar panels.
  • The approval process will be made simpler by the fact that solar PV systems with a capacity of up to 10 kW will be deemed acceptable without a feasibility study.

Support for Distribution Infrastructure:

  • In an effort to promote consumer adoption of solar energy, DISCOMs will foot the bill for upgrading distribution infrastructure for rooftop solar projects up to 5 kW in capacity.

Introduction of PM Surya Ghar: Muft Bijli Yojana:

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s PM Surya Ghar: Muft Bijli Yojana was introduced on February 15; the amendments follow suit.
  • Under this scheme, households can install solar panels on their roofs and receive a 40% subsidy. The government expects this to benefit 1 crore households and result in significant electricity cost savings.

Empowering Consumers in Residential Societies:

  • Consumers in residential societies can now choose between individual connections and a single point connection through an open voting process thanks to new regulations.
  • Every household will receive a separate connection if over 50% of owners choose individual connections.
  • In the event that a single point connection is selected, metering, billing, and collection duties will be handled by the residential association on a non-profit, no-loss basis.

Swift Processing of New Connections:

  • The time frame for obtaining new electricity connections or modifying existing ones across various areas has been shortened by the amended rules.
  • The processing time has been reduced from seven to three days in metropolitan areas, from fifteen to seven days in other municipal areas, and from thirty to fifteen days in rural areas—with the exception of rural areas with hilly terrain, where the processing time is still thirty days.

About PM Surya Ghar: Muft Bijli Yojana
– Through this scheme, the central government will invest ₹75,000 crores to give its beneficiaries 300 units of free electricity per month.
– The Finance Minister had previously declared the free electricity programme during a speech on the interim budget.
– The goal is to light up one crore homes.
– Urban Local Bodies and Panchayats will receive incentives under the scheme to encourage rooftop solar systems within their respective jurisdictions.
– Through the provision of substantial direct subsidies to bank accounts and the provision of highly advantageous bank loans, the Central Government will ensure that the people will not face any financial hardships.

Expected benefits:
– savings for households of up to fifteen to eighteen thousand rupees a year from free solar electricity and selling the excess to distribution firms;
electric car charging;
– chances for entrepreneurship for numerous suppliers in the supply and installation sectors;
– Opportunities for youth to work in manufacturing, installation, and maintenance with technical skills.

PYQ: Consider the following statements: (2016) 
1) 2015 saw the International Solar Alliance’s founding during the UN Climate Change Conference.
2) Every nation that is a member of the UN is a part of the Alliance.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2 

Ans: (a)
Practice Question: Talk about the most recent modifications to the Electricity (Rights of Consumers) Rules, 2020, which are meant to encourage rooftop solar energy projects and improve customer convenience. Examine how these changes might affect India’s objectives for renewable energy. (15 m/250 words)

3. India’s Shifting Spending Trends: Fall in Food Spending Indicates Economic Goals

Topic: GS3 – Indian Economy – Growth and Development
This subject is pertinent to both the Prelims and Mains since it helps to comprehend how spending patterns change over time and offers insights into the nation’s larger economic trends.

– India’s spending habits have changed significantly over the last 20 years, especially when it comes to the percentage of money spent on food.
– Spending on food has gradually decreased as household incomes have increased, freeing up more money for other goods and services.
– Both urban and rural households are seeing this trend: during the same period, food expenditures fell for rural households (from 59.4% in 1999–2000 to 46.38% in 2022–2023), while for urban households (from 48.06% to 39.17%).

More about the news:Composition of Food Expenditure:

  • The makeup of food spending has also changed, with a notable decline in the amount spent on cereals and a rise in the amount spent on nutrient-dense foods like eggs, fish, meat, fruits, and vegetables.
  • Spending on these items has increased more in rural households than in urban ones, in particular, suggesting a gradual shift towards more nutritious diets as incomes rise.

Need for Reviewing the Inflation Basket:

  • In order to appropriately reflect shifting consumption patterns, there is an increasing need to review the inflation basket.
  • Because it is based on data from 2012, the current Consumer Price Index (CPI) basket might not accurately reflect household consumption expenditure patterns, which could cause errors in inflation calculations.
  • The weighting given to food items in the CPI basket, for example, is out of step with real spending trends found in the most recent Household Consumption Expenditure (HCE) Survey.

Discrepancies in Imputed and Non-Imputed Average MPCE Data:

  • Differences between imputed and non-imputed average Monthly Per Capita Consumption Expenditure (MPCE) data are also highlighted in the most recent HCE Survey.
  • The imputed value of free items households receive under social welfare programmes indicates a slight increase in consumption spending; however, the absolute benefit received by the bottom 5% of the population suggests that there may be gaps in the welfare benefit distribution.

Regional Disparities in Standard of Living:

  • Regional differences in living standards are also evident in the data; nine states, including West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, and Bihar, have average per capita consumption spending that is lower than the national average.
  • In comparison to other regions, the states comprising a substantial portion of the nation’s population exhibit comparatively lower levels of economic well-being.


  • All things considered, the differences in consumption expenditure and changing spending patterns draw attention to the need for a more thorough understanding of household finances and consumption patterns.
  • To accurately assess living standards and address regional disparities in economic well-being across India, it is imperative to address discrepancies in inflation calculations and ensure equitable distribution of welfare benefits.

Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES)
Governments, policy analysts, and researchers use the Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES), a vital statistical tool, to gather information on the spending patterns of households in a nation.

– This survey offers comprehensive data on how households divide their financial resources among a number of categories, including housing, food, healthcare, education, and transportation.
– Understanding economic behaviour, evaluating living standards, and developing policies targeted at reducing poverty and promoting economic development all benefit greatly from the insights gleaned from HCES.

Objectives of HCES:
– Measuring Living Standards: The survey contributes to the evaluation of the population’s living standards and quality of life by looking at how households spend their income.
– Policy Development: Government agencies rely on data from HCES to develop and carry out efficient fiscal, social, and economic policies, such as targeted subsidies, social welfare initiatives, and tax modifications.
– Economic Analysis: Consumption patterns are important determinants of economic growth, stability, and wealth distribution in a society. Economists use HCES data to examine consumption patterns.
– Poverty and Inequality Assessment: The survey offers crucial information that is needed to quantify poverty, pinpoint at-risk populations, and comprehend income disparity—all of which are critical for the development of social policy.
– Cost of Living and Inflation: HCES data are used to calculate cost of living and inflation indices, which aid governments and central banks in the development of monetary policy.

PYQ: In the recent past, food inflation in India has been persistent and high.

What could be the reasons? (2011) 
1) The area used for food grain cultivation has gradually dropped by roughly 30% over the past five years as a result of a gradual transition to the cultivation of commercial crops.
2) People’s consumption patterns have changed significantly as a result of rising incomes.
3) There are structural limitations in the food supply chain.

Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a)1 and 2
(b)2 and 3
(c)1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3 

Ans: (b)
Practice Question:  Talk about how India’s consumption patterns have changed over the last 20 years, with a particular emphasis on the decreasing percentage of spending on food and its effects on social welfare and economic growth. (15 m/250 words)

4. Low levels of poverty, according to the head of the Center’s think tank

Topic: GS3 – Indian economy – Inclusive growth <br. 
Given that it discusses India’s shifting consumption patterns, broad-based growth, and the decline in poverty, this news is critical to UPSC.

– Citing data from the Household Consumption Expenditure Survey, the CEO of NITI Aayog asserts that less than 5% of Indians live below the poverty line and points to broad-based growth, declining urban-rural inequality, and shifting consumption patterns.

Additional information on this news:

  • The CEO of NITI Aayog, B.V.R. Subrahmanyam, states that the Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES) for 2022–2023 almost completely eliminates extreme destitution, and less than 5% of Indians are predicted to live below the poverty line.
  • Subrahmanyam challenges the idea that the nation’s economic progress is limited to a select few people by arguing that growth in India is widespread.
  • He claims that compared to their urban counterparts, Indians living in rural areas are earning more money and spending more money.
  • There has been a decrease in inequality as seen by the narrowing of the urban-rural consumption gap, which was 91% in 2004–05 and 71% in 2022–2023.
  • For the first time, food expenditures in rural households have fallen below 50% of total expenses.
  • A decrease in the percentage of people’s income that is spent on food indicates that there has been an improvement in incomes due to changes in food spending patterns, such as lower prices on cereals and pulses.
  • Spending more on consumer services, consumer durables, and transportation points to a change in lifestyle.
  • Subrahmanyam highlights that there are discrepancies in the 2017–18 Survey data and notes that this is the first official release of data since 2011–12.
  • With the lowest 5% of rural households averaging ₹1,373, the Monthly Per Capita Expenditure (MPCE) averages for 2022–2023 demonstrate differing consumption levels across fractile classes, lending credence to the theory that poverty in India is probably below the 5% mark.
  • Subrahmanyam draws attention to the fact that the consumption expenditure survey does not account for the advantages of programmes such as Ayushman Bharat and free education, implying a significant decline in poverty and deprivation.
  • The CEO of NITI Aayog also emphasises how widespread India’s growth is, noting a notable increase in both urban and rural consumption from 2011–12 levels.

Inclusive growth in India
– GDP growth: The World Bank projects an unbalanced growth rate of 7.3% in 2024–2024.
Inequality: According to the World Bank (2023), a Gini coefficient of 31.5 denotes high inequality.
Poverty: In the past ten years, 250 million Indians have been lifted out of multifaceted poverty (NITI Aayog).
– Gender Gap: According to the WEF 2023 Global Gender Gap Index, 127th out of 146.

– Benefit distribution inequality: Economic growth was concentrated in some industries and geographical areas, excluding underprivileged populations.
– Restricted access to healthcare and education: Prevents upward mobility and prolongs cycles of poverty.
– Dominance of the informal sector: A sizable section of the labour force is uninsured and does not receive benefits.
– Mismatch in skills: People are frequently not prepared with the skills that employers need by the educational system.
– Discrimination based on gender and social class: Limits opportunities for women and underrepresented groups.

– Putting effective policies into practice: Targeted interventions are necessary to address complex issues like poverty and inequality.
– Bureaucratic roadblocks and corruption: They can make it more difficult to allocate resources and carry out plans effectively.
– Land acquisition and displacement: Social and environmental issues are frequently brought on by development projects.
– Maintaining environmental protection while pursuing economic development is known as “balancing growth with sustainability.”
– Political will and public support: Long-term dedication and public support are necessary for inclusive policies to be sustained.

Way forward:
– Investing in healthcare and education will increase access and quality while preparing people for greater opportunities.
– Encourage the formalisation of the economy by giving workers in the unorganised sector benefits and social security.
– Developing skills should prioritise vocational training and matching educational curricula to industry demands.
– Investing in focused programmes and putting affirmative action policies into place will empower women and marginalised communities.
– Decentralised development: Resolve regional imbalances and strengthen local communities.
– Encourage sustainable development by giving environmental preservation equal weight with economic expansion.
– Accountability and transparency: Make sure that policies are implemented effectively and fight corruption.
PYQ: In a given year in India, official poverty lines are higher in some states than in other because  (2019) 
(a) Poverty rates vary from state to state
(b) Price levels vary from state to state
(c) Gross state product varies from state to state
(d) Quality of public distribution varies from state to state 

Ans: (b)
PYQ: Explain with reasons why “poverty persists in India despite the government’s implementation of various programmes for its eradication.” (150 words/10 m) from the 2018 UPSC CSE (M) GS-1

5. Temples found in Telangana demonstrate the Chalukya dynasty’s expansion.

Topic: GS1 – Indian History – Ancient History
By providing more historical context for the Badami Chalukya kingdom and highlighting the Deccan’s cosmopolitanism and religious diversity, this discovery enhances UPSC research.

– The recent discovery of Mudimanikyam in Telangana, which was previously believed to be separate from Badami, has expanded our understanding of the past. It has revealed temples and inscriptions that date back to the period between 543 and 750 AD.

Additional information on this news:

  • There is new evidence that Mudimanikyam in Telangana, which was previously believed to be 500 km away from Badami in Karnataka, was actually a part of the Badami Chalukya kingdom.
  • Archaeological discoveries of temples and inscriptions, spanning from 543 AD to 750 AD, enhance our comprehension of the Chalukya Badami kingdom’s past.
  • Discoveries include five temples in Mudimanikyam village and two on the riverbank that demonstrate the Deccan cosmopolitanism.
  • The temples are home to Buddhism, Jainism, and the Hindu gods Vishnu and Shiva, demonstrating the diversity of religions.
  • While working on the Krishna River basin, archaeologists M. A. Srinivasan and S. Ashok Kumar made the discoveries.

Badami Chalukya kingdom:
Foundation and Capital:
– In the Deccan region of India, the Badami Chalukya kingdom—also referred to as the Early Chalukyas—was founded sometime in the sixth century.
– The dynasty is said to have been founded by Pulakeshin I, who established the capital at Badami in modern-day Karnataka.

– The Badami Chalukyas were well known for their accomplishments in architecture, particularly their rock-hewn cave temples.
– The Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist influences can be seen in the Badami Cave Temples, which are etched into the sandstone cliffs and represent a remarkable example of early Chalukyan art.

Dynastic Rulers:
– One of the most famous kings, Pulakeshin II, brought the kingdom to its height in the seventh century. He successfully repelled the northern Indian ruler Harsha’s invasion.
– Vinayaditya and Vikramaditya I were two more notable kings who aided in the prosperity of the kingdom.

Administration and Governance:
– The king served as the supreme authority in the kingdom, which had a monarchical form of government.
– Rashtras were divisions of government, and maharajas and rajadhirajas were among the officials who helped with administration.

Military Achievements:
– The Badami Chalukyas were renowned for their military skill, and the kingdom gained a great deal of prestige from Pulakeshin II’s victory over Harsha.
– They were able to repel the Pallavas and the Rashtrakutas from their kingdom.

Trade and Economy:
– Trade between northern and southern India was facilitated by the kingdom’s advantageous location.
– Trade and agriculture played important roles in the economy and added to the region’s general prosperity.

– Due to internal strife and outside invasions, the Chalukya kingdom began to decline in the latter part of the eighth century.
– The Badami Chalukya kingdom was eventually overrun by the Rashtrakutas, ending their dominance in the Deccan.

– The Badami Chalukyas left a lasting legacy in the Deccan region of art, architecture, and governance despite their decline.
– They have left a lasting legacy of rock-cut temple architecture, which is still studied and appreciated today.

PYQ: The Nagara, the Dravida, and the Vesara are the (2012) 
(a) three main racial groups of the Indian subcontinent
(b) three main linguistic divisions into which the languages of India can be classified
(c) three main styles of Indian temple architecture
(d) three main musical Gharanas prevalent in India   

Ans: (c)
Practice Question: How did the Badami Chalukya kingdom’s military and political tactics affect the Deccan region’s geopolitical landscape during their rule, and what contributions did they make to India’s cultural and architectural legacy? (10 m / 150 words)

6. India’s linguistic diversity will be highlighted by the “language atlas” created by IGNCA.

Topic: GS1 – History – Indian Culture 
The linguistic survey is essential for UPSC candidates to comprehend India’s linguistic landscape, preserve cultural diversity, and develop inclusive education policies.

– A linguistic survey in India is being planned by the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts to ascertain the number of languages in use, which is essential for educational policies and cultural preservation.

Additional information on this news:

  • India is attempting to emphasise linguistic diversity by offering primary education in mother tongues.
  • To ascertain the number of active languages, the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA), an independent organisation under the Union Culture Ministry, suggests conducting a national linguistic survey.
  • Today, 22 languages specified in Schedule 8 of the Indian Constitution are officially recognised in India, where 97% of people speak them, according to Census data.
  • 99 non-scheduled languages were identified by the Census, and approximately 37.8 million people identify these non-scheduled languages as their mother tongue.
  • 99 non-scheduled languages were identified by the Census, and approximately 37.8 million people identify these non-scheduled languages as their mother tongue.
  • The Census has excluded languages with fewer than 10,000 speakers since 1971, thus accounting for 1.2 million people’s native tongues—especially those spoken by tribal communities.
  • The goal of the thorough linguistic survey is to produce the Language Atlas of India, which will serve as a database for upcoming legislative choices.
  • The Central Institute of Indian Languages, the Centres for Endangered Languages, university linguistic departments, and several ministries, including Culture, Education, Tribal Affairs, Home, Social Justice and Empowerment, and Development of North East Region, are collaborating on the survey.

Linguistic Diversity of India
Languages: 22 languages listed in the Indian Constitution, 780 identified by People’s Linguistic Survey (PLS).
Speakers: Over 19,500 spoken languages worldwide, India contributes to 16% of them.
Distribution: 4 major language families (Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Austroasiatic, Tibeto-Burman) with diverse regional & tribal languages.
Endangered: 50 languages extinct since 2000, 226 classified as endangered by UNESCO.

Challenges in Preservation:
– Migration and urbanisation: linguistic assimilation and major language dominance.
– Restricted Educational Resources: The media and education systems do not adequately support minority languages.
– Economic factors: Employment prospects prioritise learning proficiency in one major language over others.
– Technology and digitization: Minority languages are excluded from online and digital platforms.
– Government initiatives: insufficient funding and varying degrees of support for various languages.

Way Forward:
– Language Policy Framework: Establish a thorough policy for language promotion and preservation.
– Multilingual Education: Support multilingualism and mother tongue education.
– Digital Inclusion: Create language technologies and assist minority languages’ online presence.
– Community-driven Initiatives: Give localities the tools they need to preserve, revitalise, and celebrate their native tongues.
– Awareness & Advocacy: Spread the word about the value of linguistic diversity for cultural heritage.
– Encourage cooperation between the public sector, local communities, and educational establishments.

Practice Question: What is the potential impact of the proposed linguistic survey in India on policymaking, particularly with regard to education, and cultural preservation? Talk about it. (10 m / 150 words)

7. Black hole worlds, or blanets

Topic: GS3 – Science and Technology 
Integrating science, relevant to UPSC for comprehending hypothetical planet formation near supermassive black holes.

– Motivated by celestial conditions portrayed in a well-liked 2014 science fiction movie, scientists investigate the possibility of planet formation near supermassive black holes, revealing potential cosmic diversity.

Additional information on this news:

  • Japanese scientists postulated that planets might form in massive clouds of gas and dust close to supermassive black holes.
  • Massive gas and dust discs that encircle black holes have the ability to affect their surroundings and possibly even form planets.
  • It is thought that dust and gas collide and clump to form planets, including blanets.
  • Blanets are predicted to orbit supermassive black holes at a safe distance of roughly 100 trillion kilometres, and they will be 3,000 times larger than Earth.
  • This distinct process of planetary formation draws attention to the possible diversity of the universe’s celestial bodies.

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